Geography of Thailand

All about Thailand's Boundaries, Topography & Drainage, Regions & Climate

Thailand‘s area is around 513,120 square kilometers, which is approximately similar to Texas or Spain. Thailand is a colorful archipelago of more than 1400 islands and is home to over 69 million citizens. The country’s axial position affected Thailand’s civilization and culture in numerous ways. The earliest Tai speakers arrived in northern Thailand via rivers in what is now China, then traveled south towards the valley of the Mae Nam (river) Chao Phraya.

Immigrants were lured to this central area because of its abundant flood zone and tropical monsoon climate, which are ideal for wet-rice farming. By the twelfth century, rice agriculture and commerce were prospering in the top Chao Phraya valley. These focal chiefs eventually fell under Ayutthaya’s power, which was located at the southernmost tip of the flood zone, starting in the mid of the 14th century. Major Thai monarchs with a focus on rice cultivation and foreign commerce had their administrative centers in successive cities that were founded across the river.

Thailand’s people continued to seek toward foreign ports of commerce in the Andaman Sea and Gulf of Thailand, in contrast to their neighbors, the Khmer and the Burmese. In the late 1800s, Southeast Asian trade entered a new era thanks to European empire. By serving as a buffer between French- and British-ruled Indochina to the east and west, Thailand was able to preserve its independence during this period.

Thailand's Geography
Thailand’s Geography


In the late 1980s, Thailand had close links with Burma, Malaysia, Laos, and Cambodia. Although neither China nor Vietnam had a boundary with Thailand, their countries were only 100 kilometers away. Many of Thai borderlines followed aspects of nature like the River Mekong. According to treaties that Britain and France compelled Thailand and its neighbors to sign, most boundaries were established and defined in the late 1800s and early 1900s. The precise borders remained a matter of debate in certain places, notably across Thailand’s eastern borders with Laos and Cambodia, even as recently as the late 1980s.


There are 76 political provinces in Thailand, the capital of which is Bangkok. Despite being physically a part of the central plain, Bangkok can be viewed in a number of ways as a separate area. There are certain four geographically distinct areas: the center, the south, the northeastern border, and the western border, each of which has its own distinctive topography and environment.

Topography and Drainage

The geography of Thailand is distinguished by a center plain and towering mountains, and a highland plateau. The Malay Peninsula and parts of northern Thailand are covered with mountains, which also run from the Burmese border down through it. The primary river system of the nation, the Chao Phraya and its tributaries, drain the central plain, a lowland area, and discharge into the delta at the head of the Bight of Bangkok.

A third of the country’s land area is drained by the Chao Phraya system. The Khorat Plateau, an area of low, gently sloping hills and small lakes in northeastern Thailand, empties into the Mekong River through Mae Nam Mun. The Mekong system, which consists of several canals and dams, is the route that leads to the South China Sea.

The Mekong and Chao Phraya rivers provide transit routes for goods and people, promoting wet-rice farming and Thailand’s agricultural economy. While the islands off the coast of peninsular Thailand are far away and the salt marshes are dwindling, this region stands out for its wide coastline.

Topography and Drainage
Topography and Drainage

The 3 Best Western Region

The Doi Inthanon Mountain, Thailand’s highest peak, is situated in the Chiang Mai Province and is part of the western border’s well-known wooded highlands and wealth of animals. Additionally, the coldest climate in all of Thailand is found in the western border region.

1. The Northeast Region

Because of its poor soils, the Northeast does not preferred agriculture. The Khorat Plateau, an arid area, and a few small hills make up the majority of the area. Massive floods occur in the valleys of rivers during the brief monsoon season. The Northeast of Thailand, in contrast to the more fruitful regions, having an extended dry season and a lot of the earth is covered with low weeds. On its western and southern edges, the plateau is surrounded by mountains, while part of its eastern edge is defined by the Mekong.

2. The Interior Region

The central plains of Thailand are predominant in the country’s heartland. The plains are among the most productive regions for cultivating rice and fruit, and are more frequently referred to as “the rice bowl of Asia.” can be consider Thailand as the largest rice exporter in the world since the 1960s, and much of the country’s food is produced in this area.

The area’s relatively flat, stable topography made inland water and land transportation easier. In 1987, the rich area had a higher density of residents than the rest of the country, with 422 people living there per as opposed to 98 for the entire country.

The Chao Phraya and its tributary, along with the farmed paddy fields, make up the majority of the terrain of the area. City Bangkok, which serves as the region’s commercial, transportation, and industrial hub, is located at the southernmost point of the area at the tip of the Gulf of Thailand. A portion of the Chao Phraya River delta is also contained there.

3. The South Region

The South, a small peninsula, has a distinct climate, geography, and resource base. Rice farming for sustaining life and rubber production for industries form the foundation of its economy. Tin mining, coconut plantations, and tourismโ€”all of which are quite lucrative on Phuket Islandโ€”are other sources of revenue. Large rivers are conspicuously absent from the South, and the region is characterized by rolling and rugged topography.

The north-south mountain barriers, thick tropical forests, and early isolation of this region were to fault, as was its particular political history. Theravada Buddhism is headquartered in Nakhon Si Thammarat.


The Climate!
The Climate!


Thailand experiences tropical monsoons. The usual average temp is between a low of 19ยฐ C and an average yearly high of 38ยฐ C. Beginning in May and lasting until July, the southwestern monsoon rains herald the beginning of the wet weather, which lasted nearly until October (excluding in the South).

During November and December, the dry season officially begins. The temperature starts to increase in January, and the sunlight warms up the environment. Due to the sea is close to every area of the Malay Peninsula, the dry season is the shortest there.

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